Second-century Christian writers such as Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Melito (the bishop of Sardis), Clement of Alexandria, and the author of the Muratorian fragment identify John the Apostle as the "John" of Revelation. The book of Acts provides a bridge for the writings of the New Testament. The "star" then opens the bottomless pit. Mark may be writing to prepare his readers for such suffering by placing before them the life of our Lord. Haggai was a prophet who, along with Zechariah, encouraged the returned exiles to rebuild the temple. Because of the occasion that prompted this letter, Paul had a number of purposes in mind: to express the comfort and joy Paul felt because the Corinthians had responded favorably to his painful letter; to let them know about the trouble he went through in the province of Asia; and to explain to them the true nature (its joys, sufferings and rewards) and high calling of Christian ministry. The book spans three literary genres: the epistolary, the apocalyptic, and the prophetic. The name Revelation comes from the first word of the book in Koine Greek: ἀποκάλυψις (apokalypsis), which means "unveiling" or "revelation". The book of Ezra relates how God's covenant people were restored from Babylonian exile to the covenant land as a theocratic (kingdom of God) community even while continuing under foreign rule. [citation needed], There are approximately 300 Greek manuscripts of Revelation. (22:1–5), Christ's reassurance that his coming is imminent. Esther records the institution of the annual festival of Purim through the historical account of Esther, a Jewish girl who becomes queen of Persia and saves her people from destruction. Paul's primary purpose in writing this letter was to thank the Philippians for the gift they had sent him upon learning of his detention at Rome. [citation needed]. The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament, and consequently is also the final book of the Christian Bible. (12:1–2), A great Dragon (with seven heads, ten horns, and seven crowns on his heads) drags a third of the stars of Heaven with his tail, and throws them to the Earth. [54], In the Coptic Orthodox Church the whole Book of Revelation is read during Apocalypse Night or Good Friday.[55]. He regarded the Apocalypse as the work of an inspired man but not of an Apostle (Eusebius, Church History VII.25).[23]. The theological message of the book can be summed up in one sentence: The Great King will come not only to judge his people, but also to bless and restore them. The author himself states his main purpose clearly in 20:31: "that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.". Malachi, whose name means "my messenger," spoke to the Israelites after their return from exile. The author seems to be using his sources in a completely different way to the originals. In the first, there was a scheme of cosmic renewal in "great Chaldean sky-spaces", which he quite liked. Possible allusions are described as mere echoes of their putative sources. (1:14–20), Praised for not bearing those who are evil, testing those who say they are apostles and are not, and finding them to be liars; hating the deeds of the, Admonished to "do the first works" and to repent for having left their "first love.". The prophet Hosea son of Beeri lived in the tragic final days of the northern kingdom. Whitlock wrote: "Zoroastrianism, the state religion of the Roman Empire's main rival, was part of the intellectual millieu in which Christianity came into being, just as were Judaism, the Greek-Roman religion, and the worship of Isis and Mithras. It serves as a manual of regulations enabling the holy King to set up his earthly throne among the people of his kingdom. The prophet Zephaniah was evidently a person of considerable social standing in Judah and was probably related to the royal line. Lamentations consists of a series of poetic and powerful laments over the destruction of Jerusalem (the royal city of the Lord's kingdom) in 586 B.C. A clear allusion is one with almost the same wording as its source, the same general meaning, and which could not reasonably have been drawn from elsewhere. Ian Boxall[112] writes that Revelation "is no montage of biblical quotations (that is not John's way) but a wealth of allusions and evocations rewoven into something new and creative." It was written in Aramaic." Upon the cry of the angel, seven thunders utter mysteries and secrets that are not to be written down by John. Similar to the early Protestants, Adventists maintain a historicist interpretation of the Bible's predictions of the apocalypse. Methodological objections have been made to this course as each allusion may not have an equal significance. and the Iranian mythology evil character Zahhak or Dahāg, depicted in the Avesta, the earliest religious texts of Zoroastrianism. In his first letter Peter feeds Christ's sheep by instructing them how to deal with persecution from outside the church; in this second letter he teaches them how to deal with false teachers and evildoers who have come into the church. His name means "The Lord saves." [18][19] [87] Her The Face of the Deep is a meditation upon the Apocalypse. The book contains the "vision of Nahum," whose name means "comfort." Lake translation: "not genuine"] writings must be reckoned, as I said, the Apocalypse of John, if it seem proper, which some, as I said, reject, but which others class with the accepted books. "[59] As participatory agents in the work of salvation for all humankind, "This remnant announces the arrival of the judgment hour, proclaims salvation through Christ, and heralds the approach of His second advent. [69], The Book of Mormon states that John the Apostle is the author of Revelation and that he was foreordained by God to write it. The early Protestants followed a historicist interpretation of the Bible, which identified the Pope as the Antichrist. (16:3), Third Bowl: All fresh water turns to blood. (16:1–2), Second Bowl: The Sea turns to blood and everything within it dies. Apocalypse p. 11 Lawrence did not consider how these two types of Christianity (good and bad in his view) might be related other than as opposites. Over half of the references stem from Daniel, Ezekiel, Psalms, and Isaiah, with Daniel providing the largest number in proportion to length and Ezekiel standing out as the most influential. ", Paul was concerned about the welfare of the churches during this time of persecution under Nero, and he admonishes Timothy to guard the gospel, to persevere in it, to keep on preaching it, and, if necessary, to suffer for it. Genesis speaks of beginnings and is foundational to the understanding of the rest of the Bible. [115], One theory, Revelation Draft Hypothesis, sees the book of Revelation constructed by forming parallels with several texts in the Old Testament such as Ezekiel, Isaiah, Zechariah, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Exodus, and Daniel. Seven angels are each given trumpets (8:2). He sets out a comparative table listing the chapters of Revelation in sequence and linking most of them to the structurally corresponding chapter in Ezekiel. He directs people to make an image of the Beast of the Sea who was wounded yet lives, breathing life into it, and forcing all people to bear ", The proclamations of three angels. [a] Thus, it occupies a central place in Christian eschatology. Although 1 Peter is a short letter, it touches on various doctrines and has much to say about Christian life and duties. [38], The Apostolic Canons, approved by the Eastern Orthodox Council in Trullo in 692, but rejected by Pope Sergius I, omit it. [68] The seven heads of the dragon are symbolic of the seven provinces dominated by the Umayyads: Damascus, Persia, Arabia, Egypt, Africa, Andalusia, and Transoxania. [47] The following is therefore an outline of the book's contents rather than of its structure. The Collegeville Bible Commentary Liturgical Press, 1992 p. 1296. After the failure of King Saul, 2 Samuel depicts David as a true (though imperfect) representative of the ideal theocratic king. It is not surprising that different readers have found it to have different principal themes. [81] Poetry was also the reason John never directly quoted the older prophets. [62], 'Abdu'l-Bahá has given some interpretations about the 11th and 12th chapters of Revelation in Some Answered Questions. [53], Accordingly, the Book of Revelation should not be read as an enigmatic warning, but as an encouraging vision of Christ's definitive victory over evil. (8:8–9), Fourth Trumpet: A third of the sun, the moon, and the stars are darkened creating complete darkness for a third of the day and the night. Paul sent the letter with Zenas and Apollos, who were on a journey that took them through Crete, to give Titus personal authorization and guidance in meeting opposition, instructions about faith and conduct, and warnings about false teachers. John, on this theory, rearranges Ezekiel to suit his own purposes. [56] This view is also held by many Catholics, although there is a diversity of opinion about the nature of the Apocalypse within Catholicism. (6:5–6), Fourth Seal: A pale horse appears, whose rider is, Fifth Seal: "Under the altar", appeared the souls of martyrs for the "word of God", who cry out for vengeance.