2009). The creation of protected areas for terrestrial or marine wildlife by the coerced displacement or exclusion of the existing inhabitants. States, meanwhile, rarely have the monitoring and enforcement capacity to control large swaths of land without local support (much less with local antagonism), hence leading to so-called “paper parks”, where conservation areas exist only in a legal document (Stolton and Dudley 1999; Ostrom and Nagendra 2006). When forests are turned into fortresses, they require guards, gatekeepers and administrators. This can cause former local resource users to become “conservation refugees” with few livelihood alternatives (Livelihood Alternatives) and few incentives to comply with PA rules (Compliance), and who experience a drastic decline in welfare (User Group Well-being Change). As a result of negative human well-being and lack of participation and voice of people, non-compliance is a problem, resulting in failure of the fortress conservation approach. Stolton, Sue, and Nigel Dudley. “Insights on Linking Forests, Trees, and People from the Air, on the Ground, and in the Laboratory.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (51): 19224–19231. 2009. In the language of sesmad variables, fortress conservation occurs when you have a highly centralized (Centralization) protected area (Policy Instrument) that creates a protected area (Policy Instrument) that strictly prohibits user access (PA IUCN Strict Zones; User-commons Proximity), with monitoring and strong sanctions by the government (External Monitoring; External Sanctions).Critics of this approach (Brockington 2002; Wilshusen et al. All Rights Reserved. Survival International Director Stephen Corry said: “This is a devastating indictment which should spell the end of WWF’s model of "fortress conservation" which has caused so much damage to people and the environment throughout Africa. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. Journals in Human Geography and related fields, community-based natural resource management. “Effects of Habitat on Spillover from Marine Protected Areas to Artisanal Fisheries.” Marine Ecology Progress Series 379: 197–211. Fortress conservation is based on three assumptions: 1) wilderness is "asocial" and free from human impact and activity, 2) humans and nature are separate and humans are either uninvolved or dominant over nature, and 3) nature should be … Please subscribe or login to access full text content. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2013. "Fortress conservation is a conservation model based on the belief that biodiversity protection is best achieved by creating protected areas where ecosystems can function in isolation from human disturbance. 2006. Robbins, Paul. As a result of being pushed out of the commons and culturally important sites on which they depend, local user groups shall experience substantial declines in their sense of identity or community cohesion. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. 2007. Forcada, Aitor, Carlos Valle, Patrick Bonhomme, Géraldine Criquet, Gwenaël Cadiou, Philippe Lenfant, and José L Sánchez-Lizaso. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Fortress conservation. Because local people are labeled as criminals, poachers, and squatters on lands they have occupied for decades or centuries, they tend to be antagonistic toward fortress-style conservation initiatives and less likely to support the conservation goals.". “A Preliminary Survey of Management Status and Threats in Forest Protected Areas.” Parks 9 (2): 27–33. PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). ... Access to the complete content on Oxford Reference requires a subscription or purchase. As a result of being marginalized and pushed out of the commons on which they depend, local user groups with few livelihood alternatives frequently experience substantial declines in their well-being. It provides spaces for tourists and can be integral to modernization goals and agendas. There is a ‘movement’ (perhaps that’s not the right word) pushing towards a concept of “fortress conservation.” SanWild Sanctuary has its own “fortress” proposals underway in Limpopo – taking precious species into well prepared habitat, exclusively for the use and protection of that precious wildlife.