A terraformed Saturn showing the outer shell with super oceans and mega continents. [129][131] Ancient Chinese and Japanese culture designated the planet Saturn as the "earth star" (土星). Social Media Lead: [152], In 2006, NASA reported that Cassini had found evidence of liquid water reservoirs no more than tens of meters below the surface that erupt in geysers on Saturn's moon Enceladus. [56] In images from the Cassini spacecraft during 2007, Saturn's northern hemisphere displayed a bright blue hue, similar to Uranus. [139][140] In Ottoman Turkish, Urdu and Malay, the name of Zazel is 'Zuhal', derived from the Arabic language (Arabic: زحل‎, romanized: Zuhal). The total mass of these heavier elements is estimated to be 19–31 times the mass of the Earth, with a significant fraction located in Saturn's core region. The average distance between Saturn and the Sun is over 1.4 billion kilometers (9 AU). Mimas and Enceladus are the same size,” Spilker said, but Enceladus has water jets while Mimas appears not to. [40] The rings extend from 6,630 to 120,700 kilometers (4,120 to 75,000 mi) outward from Saturn's equator and average approximately 20 meters (66 ft) in thickness. [70], The south pole storm may have been present for billions of years. [146], No further discoveries of significance were made until 1789 when William Herschel discovered two further moons, Mimas and Enceladus. [64] The pattern's origin is a matter of much speculation. “Water, food, and heat—everything is there for life as we know it,” she said. Some ice in the E ring comes from the moon Enceladus's geysers. 113,353 Views. Materials it's made of The 1st layer is helium and as you go down you get to ice, liquid helium, liquid Water ice clouds begin at a level where the pressure is about 2.5 bar and extend down to 9.5 bar, where temperatures range from 185–270 K. Intermixed in this layer is a band of ammonium hydrosulfide ice, lying in the pressure range 3–6 bar with temperatures of 190–235 K. Finally, the lower layers, where pressures are between 10–20 bar and temperatures are 270–330 K, contains a region of water droplets with ammonia in aqueous solution. It is a gas giant with an average radius of about nine times that of Earth. [128] In ancient Roman mythology, the planet Phainon was sacred to this agricultural god, from which the planet takes its modern name. One hypothesis is that the rings are remnants of a destroyed moon of Saturn. ", "Hunt for Life on Saturnian Moon Heats Up", "Life beyond Earth? [10] Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune, the other giant planets in the Solar System, are also oblate but to a lesser extent. [10] Together, Jupiter and Saturn hold 92% of the total planetary mass in the Solar System. The arcs don’t appear to be related to any physical features of the moon’s surface, such as valleys or fractures. Made of a pair of two-wheeled vehicles, DuAxel is designed to descend craters and near-vertical cliffs on the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The reason for their differences is unknown. [162][163] The atmospheric entry of Cassini ended the mission. “It’s all there.”. The power of the lightning is approximately 1,000 times that of lightning on Earth. Infrared images from NASA's Juno spacecraft are providing the first glimpse of Ganymede's icy north pole. Another one among the top most potentially habitable planets is Gliese 832 c, located approximately 16 light years away in the constellation of Grus. An alternative or additional mechanism may be generation of heat through the "raining out" of droplets of helium deep in Saturn's interior. “They go up mountains and down into craters,” Spilker said. [52], The composition of the clouds varies with depth and increasing pressure. “We didn’t even see them until a Cassini scientist started looking in the near-infrared,” Spilker said. The second hypothesis is that the rings are left over from the original nebular material from which Saturn was formed. Saturn has been known since prehistoric times,[125] and in early recorded history it was a major character in various mythologies. Saturn's ocean-harboring moons get most of the press, but the ringed planet's many dry satellites are fascinating in their own right. Stable Oceans Lead to Climate Change Saturn's Moon Enceladus Has an Ocean, And It Could Be Habitable New data confirms that Saturn's moon has a … On the moon Tethys, Cassini observed mysterious red arcs, though they weren’t easy to see. Didymos B is getting an official name of its own: Dimorphos. [131] In Hindu astrology, there are nine astrological objects, known as Navagrahas. [74] When Voyager 2 entered the magnetosphere, the solar wind pressure was high and the magnetosphere extended only 19 Saturn radii, or 1.1 million km (712,000 mi),[75] although it enlarged within several hours, and remained so for about three days.