Although this process has been used to successfully clone many different types of animals—including sheep, cows, mules, rabbits, and dogs—its success rate is low, with only a small percentage of embryos surviving to birth. In SCNT, an egg cell is taken from an animal and its nucleus is removed, creating an enucleated egg. Implant the embryo cell mass into a surrogate mothers uterus for development. All rights reserved, Chapter 5: Membranes and Cellular Transport, Chapter 12: Classical and Modern Genetics, Chapter 22: Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems, Chapter 28: Population and Community Ecology, Chapter 29: Biodiversity and Conservation, Chapter 34: Plant Structure, Growth, and Nutrition, Chapter 36: Plant Responses to the Environment. Place the nucleus from the differentiated/somatic/diploid cell into the enucleated egg cell. To learn more about our GDPR policies click here. Copyright © 2020 MyJoVE Corporation. Start studying Biology - Steps for Reproductive Cloning. We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. Then a somatic cell—any cell that is not a sex cell—is taken from the animal to be cloned. Reproductive cloning is the production of a genetically identical copy, a clone of an organization. We use/store this info to ensure you have proper access and that your account is secure. If that doesn't help, please let us know. Please check your Internet connection and reload this page. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to reach out to our customer success team. Remove the nucleus from the differentiated/somatic/diploid cell. “Cloning Humans? Remove a differentiated/somatic/diploid cell from the organism that is being cloned. While clones can be produced by splitting an early embryo—similar to what happens naturally with identical twins—cloning of adult animals is usually done by a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Reproductive Cloning. Unable to load video. Dolly the sheep, produced in 1996 was the first clone of an adult animal, but several other species have been closed since, including dogs and cats. If you want more info regarding data storage, please contact gdpr@jove.com. It is stimulated to divide, forming an embryo, which is then implanted into the uterus of a surrogate mother. Nucleus Transfer: The first step is the transfer of genetic information from a cell of the animal to be cloned, to an egg, which has been stripped of its cell nucleus. Reproductive cloning is a method used to make a clone or an identical copy of an entire multicellular organism. Ayala, Francisco J. The egg is stimulated to divide by chemical or electrical treatment, and forms an embryo, which is implanted into the uterus of an adult female, where it continues to develop until birth. Most multicellular organisms undergo reproduction by sexual means, which involves genetic hybridization of two individuals (parents), making it impossible to generate an identical copy or clone of either parent. Also, phenotypic differences can occur between the clone and the original animal, due to environmental and epigenetic factors. Biological, Ethical, and Social Considerations.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, no. If the problem continues, please, An unexpected error occurred. Despite the technical challenges, reproductive cloning has many potential uses including the production of genetically identical research animals, livestock with desired traits, and offspring of endangered species. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1501718112. For example, the first cloned cat, Cc, looked very different from the original cat, because the coat pattern is due to random X-chromosome inactivation in different cells. Keefer, Carol L. “Artificial Cloning of Domestic Animals.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, no. The nucleus of the somatic cell is then transferred into the enucleated egg—either by direct injection or by fusion of the somatic cell to the egg using an electrical current. If you would like to continue using JoVE, please let your librarian know as they consider the most appropriate subscription options for your institution’s academic community. Your access has now expired. By continuing to use our website or clicking “Continue”, you are agreeing to accept our cookies.