Second, the carbon dioxide-rich gas is pressurized and refrigerated until it liquefies. When this occurs some liquid carbon dioxide vaporizes, causing a rapid lowering of temperature of the remaining liquid. The scientists demonstrated a carbon dioxide-to-ethylene conversion rate of greater than 70%, much more efficient than previous designs, which … When basalt is exposed to CO2 and water, the carbon precipitates into a white, chalky solid, but in these kinds of conditions, nobody knew how long the process might take. In my opinion, the catalytic, solar-driven conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol, formic acid, etc. is much more interesting and promising, but since Enrico asked for the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon itself: The group around Yutaka Tamaura was/is active in this field. An international team of scientists led by RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia claims to have discovered a technique to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) gas into solid carbon. As a result, the extreme cold causes the liquid to solidify into a snow-like consistency. A Canadian startup is testing a system that sucks carbon dioxide from the air and converts it into fuel for cars and other vehicles. Next, the pressure is reduced. They mixed carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide produced by the plant with water, and injected it into the volcanic basalt underneath the plant. Nevertheless, producing liquid hydrocarbons with a single catalyst without utilizing additional C–C coupling agents remains a formidable challenge. Considerable progress has been made in the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2), which is highly thermodynamically stable, into liquid hydrocarbons using metal oxide/zeolite composite catalysts.